Samarkand has a history of 2,750 years. He is the same age as Rome. The destinies of Alexander the Great and Ismail Samani, Genghis Khan and Amir Temur are connected with this city. Under the great Temur, Samarkand was the capital of a world power.
Historical and architectural monuments of Samarkand
The mausoleum of Abu Mansur al-Maturidi was created at the burial site of one of the first theorists of Islam, al-Maturidi. He immortalized his name as the creator of the teachings of the philosophical foundations of the Muslim faith. This doctrine, which later received the name “Maturidia”, gained wide popularity. Fundamental studies of al-Maturidi in the field of the foundations of theology and sharia called “Maahaz al-Sharif”, “Kitab al-Jadal”, “Ta’wilat al-Quran” have not lost their value and relevance to this day, as evidenced by the reprinting in Muslim countries of the books of Maturidi for a whole millennium.
Abu Mansur Muhammad, named Maturidi, was born in the village of Maturid (modern kishlak Motrit) near Samarkand. At the end of the 9th century, he studied in the Samarkand madrasah of al-Ayozi. Subsequently, al-Maturidi himself taught for a long time in a madrasa, at the same time studying the suras of the Koran, the Hadiths and their interpretation.
At the initiative of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I.A. Karimov was erected over the grave of al-Maturidi, a mausoleum, whose architecture is designed in oriental style, and the traditional methods of Uzbek carving and painting on ganch were used in the interior design.
The ancient settlement Afrosiab appears on an area of more than 200 hectares, which bears the name of the legendary Turanian king Afrasiab. From the north and east it was protected by cliffs of river channels, from the south and west the city had deep ravines. Many scientists believe that Afrasiab was an ancient Sogdian capital, famous for Marakanda.
The first monumental masonry of the fortress walls of the settlement belong to the VII-VI centuries BC. Since ancient times, at the foot of the citadel, there were urban quarters with dwellings of citizens, temples, ponds and commercial areas.
In the first millennium AD Samarkand was one of the most powerful princedoms of Sogd, famous for the success of the Sogdians in organizing caravan trade on the Great Silk Road in the 4th-8th centuries. In the 30s of VII. Sogd obeyed the Tang Chinese dynasty. From the middle of VII century. the confederation of the principalities of Sogd was headed by the ruler of Samarkand, who bore the title of Ishkhid.
In the palace complex of the city, located in one of the quarters of the 7th – 8th centuries. AD, world-famous wall paintings, made by the most talented Samarkand painters, were discovered. The walls of the main hall are decorated with highly artistic paintings made with glue paints on clay plaster.
In the IX-X centuries, Samarkand became one of the main cultural centers of the Islamic East and the first capital of the Samanid dynasty. In the western part of Afrasiab traces of the Samanid palace with carved panels were found.
In the XI-XIII centuries, Samarkand became the capital of the state of the western Karakhanids and was surrounded by new defensive walls. The Karakhanid palace was erected in the citadel. The burial of Kusam ibn Abbas, above which the mausoleum was erected, has acquired a cult significance.
At the beginning of the XIII century Khorezmshah Muhammad captured Samarkand and on the site of the Karakhanid Palace erected a new palace decorated with murals. But the state of Khorezmshah fell under the blow of the Mongols, and after a short siege Samarkand was captured by Genghis Khan. The city was badly damaged during the wars of the second half of the 13th century, which led to the complete desolation of the ancient city on Afrasiab.
The Khoja Akhrar memorial complex today includes a madrasa, a summer and winter mosque, a column ayvan and a small minaret built in 1909. In the 16th century, Nadir Divanbegi ordered the construction of a madrasa and a mosque here.
Nadir Divanbegi Madrasah is called the “Sher-Dora mirror”. The monument has reached us in a severely destroyed form. To restore the appearance of the madrasah, the work of a nineteenth-century Samarkand scholar was studied. Abutahirhoji Samaria, where the Nadir Divanbegi madrasah was called Sherdori-Berun (Berun is the external one located outside the city limits). Hence, naturally, the conclusion is that in some elements of the decor it coincided with its urban “prototype”. True, Abutahirhodja did not disclose the basis of this analogy in the title.
Several photographs of the Nadir Divanbegi Madrasah, made back in 1870, were found in the funds of the St. Petersburg Hermitage archive. Among them was a photograph of the entrance east portal, on the tympanum of which fragments of the hunting scene with lions and deer are distinguishable. True, unlike Cher-Dora, there was no image of the sun: instead there was a floral ornament.
A thorough, painstaking study of a black and white photograph of the last century, modeling on fragments of the whole allowed the restorers to restore the tympanum of the entrance portal of the Nadir Divanbegi madrasah in its original form.
Tashkent Street – Masters Street is considered one of the most ancient streets of Samarkand and starts from Registan Square. In ancient times, it was one of the most important caravan roads, connecting Samarkand with the Tashkent oasis, the Fergana Valley, and China. Starting from the time of Amir Temur, trade has always been going on this street.
Mosque Bibi-Khanym and Siab Bazaar are located on Tashkent street. The city authorities closed the traffic and made the street pedestrian. On both sides there are shops and shops of artisans, in which you can buy souvenirs of Samarkand – ceramic products, lacquered boxes with paintings, a national robe-chapan, embroidered in gold or the famous khan-atlas and hand-made raspberry velvet “bakhmal”, Samarkand silk carpets woven as in the old on a manual loom.
University Boulevard stretches nearly a kilometer from the “President Hotel” to the Hamid Alimjan Theater of Musical Drama. The width of the boulevard is 128 meters.
This boulevard was laid in the seventies of the XIX century, shortly after the capture of Samarkand by tsarist Russia. She then served as a kind of border between the old part of the city and the new – “European”. At the same time, the boulevard was planted with plane trees and oak trees, which in our time have turned into century-old mighty trees.
The former name of the boulevard – Abramovsky reminds of the first tsarist governor of the Samarkand region. The boulevard was built up with administrative buildings from burnt, so-called “Nikolaev” brick. In Turkestan, then developed a special style of architecture, in which the European features and local traditions bizarrely combined. In the former governor’s palace, the city mayor’s office is now located. In another old building is located Samarkand